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麻疹

這是什麼疾病?

.由麻疹病毒引起的急性傳染病9.具有高度傳染性,可透過患者咳嗽和打噴嚏而傳播8

徵狀

.首先出現的徵狀是高燒(39.4℃ - 40.5℃),可持續4至7天8,9.之後會流鼻水、咳嗽、眼紅,口腔內會出現白點8.一般會於受感染14天後長出紅疹,並逐漸蔓延到手腳9

是嚴重疾病嗎?

.麻疹是極為嚴重的疾病,是全球其中一個導致兒童死亡的主要原因8.約30%個案出現一種或以上的併發症9,包括失明、腹瀉(導致脫水)、耳部感染、肺炎,腦水腫、癲癇,甚至死亡8,9.併發症最為常見於5歲以下兒童和20歲以上成年人9

知多一點點

病毒可在受感染表面仍然活躍長達2小時8

尚未有廣泛應用的預防方法之前,每年估計有260萬人因麻疹死亡8

Reference:
1. Data on file, MSD
2. Data on file, MSD
3. 衛生署-衛生防護中心. Avaliable at: https://www.chp.gov.hk/tc/healthtopics/content/24/15.html. Access on 17 May 2018.
4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2015; 13th ed: 353-376.
5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2016. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/chickenpox/about/symptoms.html. Accessed on 19 May 2017.
6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2016. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/chickenpox/about/transmission.html. Accessed on 19 May 2017.
7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2007; Vol. 56; RR04; 1-40. 8.
8. World Health Organization (WHO) Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs286/en/. Accessed on 19 May 2017.
9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2015; 13th ed: 209-230.
10. Centre for Health Protection Available at: http://www.chp.gov.hk/en/content/9/24/41.html. Accessed on 6 Jun 2017.
11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2015; 13th ed: 247-260.
12. World Health Organization (WHO) 2016. Available at: http://apps.who.int/immunization_monitoring/globalsummary/timeseries/tsincidencemumps.html. Accessed on 19 May 2017.
13. Gershon AA . Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases 2015; 8th ed: 1967-1973.
14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2015; 13th ed: 325-340.
15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2012; 5th edition: 1-20.
16. 衛生署-衛生防護中心 Available at: https://www.chp.gov.hk/tc/healthtopics/content/24/31.html. Access on 17 May 2018.
17. 衛生署-衛生防護中心 Available at: https://www.chp.gov.hk/tc/healthtopics/content/24/34.html. Access on 17 May 2018.
18. 衛生署-衛生防護中心 Available at: https://www.chp.gov.hk/tc/healthtopics/content/24/40.html. Access on 17 May 2018.