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水痘

這是什麼疾病?

.由帶狀疱疹病毒引起的傳染病4.很容易透過患者咳嗽和打噴嚏,或者觸摸患者皮膚上的水泡而傳播4,6.在水泡出現前的1至2天直到水泡結痂(5至7天)都有傳染性6

徵狀

.最常見的徵狀包括:紅疹、痕癢和發燒(38.9℃)4.水泡通常出現在臉部、腹部或背部,然後蔓延至其他部位4

是嚴重疾病嗎?

.孩子身上平均可出現多達500個水泡4.水泡會變乾結痂。但如水泡受到細菌感染,或者孩子太早便去搔抓身上的痂,則可能會留下永久難看的疤痕.有併發症的風險,包括﹕皮膚感染、腦炎、肺炎、猩紅熱7,10。即使不太嚴重的感染個案亦可能因其他併發症而需要住院治理,嚴重的更可能致命4

知多一點點

孩子生水痘可能需暫停上學長達一星期5

Reference:
1. Data on file, MSD
2. Data on file, MSD
3. 衛生署-衛生防護中心. Avaliable at: https://www.chp.gov.hk/tc/healthtopics/content/24/15.html. Access on 17 May 2018.
4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2015; 13th ed: 353-376.
5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2016. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/chickenpox/about/symptoms.html. Accessed on 19 May 2017.
6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2016. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/chickenpox/about/transmission.html. Accessed on 19 May 2017.
7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2007; Vol. 56; RR04; 1-40. 8.
8. World Health Organization (WHO) Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs286/en/. Accessed on 19 May 2017.
9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2015; 13th ed: 209-230.
10. Centre for Health Protection Available at: http://www.chp.gov.hk/en/content/9/24/41.html. Accessed on 6 Jun 2017.
11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2015; 13th ed: 247-260.
12. World Health Organization (WHO) 2016. Available at: http://apps.who.int/immunization_monitoring/globalsummary/timeseries/tsincidencemumps.html. Accessed on 19 May 2017.
13. Gershon AA . Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases 2015; 8th ed: 1967-1973.
14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2015; 13th ed: 325-340.
15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2012; 5th edition: 1-20.
16. 衛生署-衛生防護中心 Available at: https://www.chp.gov.hk/tc/healthtopics/content/24/31.html. Access on 17 May 2018.
17. 衛生署-衛生防護中心 Available at: https://www.chp.gov.hk/tc/healthtopics/content/24/34.html. Access on 17 May 2018.
18. 衛生署-衛生防護中心 Available at: https://www.chp.gov.hk/tc/healthtopics/content/24/40.html. Access on 17 May 2018.